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THE HUMAN TERRAIN SYSTEM:Operationally Relevant Social Science Research in Iraq and The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is part of the U.S. Army War.
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The biggest risk factors and those most commonly associated with winter weather exposure are hypothermia and frostbite. Both are significant risks for both service personnel on the job and civilians enjoying winter sports at this time of year. Frostbite occurs when a part of the body — usually an extremity such as fingers and toes— freezes. In the most severe cases, frostbitten tissue may require amputation.

"Between a Drone and Al-Qaeda"

The incidence of frostbite is four times that of hypothermia, according to Army Maj. Hypothermia occurs when body temperature drops due to excessive heat loss, inadequate heat production, or a combination of both. This can happen due to sweating in cold air, accidental water immersion, or simply being exposed to extreme cold for a prolonged time period. Symptoms of hypothermia include shivering, confusion, memory loss, slurred speech, and exhaustion.

Symptoms of frostnip, the first stage of frostbite, include skin redness, pain, or a tingling sensation. Frostbite sets in with numbness, joint and muscle fatigue, and a hardening of the skin, usually starting with the toes and fingers or other extremities. Service members stationed in cold climates are prone to other winter weather afflictions as well, according to DeGroot. Trench foot, a common ailment of British soldiers during the Falkland Islands War, is caused by prolonged exposure to cold and damp conditions, which can lead to severe tissue damage.

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a risk for anyone using space heaters in field tents without proper ventilation. For service members and outdoor enthusiasts alike, snow blindness and sunburn are conditions that can result from the bright sun reflecting off snow. Proper eye protection and sunscreen are a must when engaging in any outdoor winter activities, especially on sunny days. A DHA review of cold weather injuries ranked frostbite as the most common.

Certain demographic groups were at greater risk of such injuries, including females and younger Army recruits.

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DeGroot noted that these statistics help leaders ensure their field soldiers are well-trained and properly clothed to withstand the many risks associated with cold weather exposure. For example, cotton should not be used at the bottom layer because it will trap moisture; the cooling effect could lead to hypothermia. Prolonged exposure to cold temperatures is a greater risk factor for those who spend long periods of time outdoors — not just for the military but hunters and hikers as well.

DeGroot cautioned against use of alcohol or tobacco products when venturing outdoors in winter because these substances affect blood flow to the skin and can increase risks of hypothermia or frostbite. Alcohol consumption can also impair judgement regarding how much exposure to cold the body can withstand.

Dehydration is another often overlooked cold weather risk factor, DeGroot stated, particularly for military members on patrol who drink less in order to minimize the need to relieve themselves in subzero temperatures.

The result can be dizziness, confusion, or drowziness. Taking proper precautions can ensure a successful outdoor experience in cold temperatures, whether at work or play. This instruction establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and prescribes standard elements, pursuant to section of Public Law , requiring the implementation of a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment policy in the Military Services.

The aim of this experimentation was to determine the effects of these chemicals on the nervous systems and mental functions of individuals and to evaluate preventive and therapeutic treatment agents to combat these effects. Edgewood Arsenal has been the center of chemical warfare research and development since Bellavia ringing the Bell today 2 days ago. Feral Jundi. Afghanistan is now the least peaceful country in the world 3 weeks ago.

Afghan LORD. Pakistani Girls Sold into Marriage 1 month ago. Madina, The invisible women of my world 1 month ago. Juan de Herat. Mahatma Gandhi : Non violence in peace and war 11 months ago. Afghanistan Analysis. Ghosts of Alexander. Kabul Perspective. Failure of Security Transition? I should have raised hell 6 years ago. While there is Chai Sabz, there is hope. Abu Muqawama. About Me Nick Fielding United Kingdom This blog aims to highlight issues and information that don't always make it into the mainstream media.

Recognising that comment is cheap, wherever possible it will link you directly to documents and sources that are mentioned in the text. I realised some time ago that it was impossible to write about Afghanistan without writing about Pakistan and other neighbouring countries. With that in mind, the reader will come across articles that, while not specifically about Afghanistan, in some way shed light on the conflict. View my complete profile. Snap Shots. Thursday, 10 October Presidential runners and riders.

Here is a complete list of registered runners and riders for next year's elections for President, listed in the chronological order of their registration: 1- Bismillah Sher First vice president, Abdul Karim Ahmadyar Second vice president, Sultan Hamid Sultani 2- Dr. Posted by Nick Fielding at 1 comments. Tuesday, 1 October Marine generals sacked for Camp Bastion failings. When a small group of Taliban fighters cut through the fence and got into the massive Camp Bastion in southwestern Helmand province in September last year I wrote the following: "The Camp Bastion night attack will go down as one of the most one-sided and audacious attacks in the history of modern warfare.

The cost to the Taliban, besides the deaths of its fighters, was probably no more than a few thousand dollars. The costs to the Coalition runs into hundreds of millions of dollars". It has taken a year for the American military's most senior commanders to respond to the attack, but now they have done so. In what has been referred to as an "unprecedented" decision, the two senior American officers at the base have been retired from the service ie sacked.

Major General Charles M Gurganus and Major General Gregg A Sturdevant "did not take the necessary steps to ensure force protection," says the official inquiry, resulting in the deaths of two marines and injury to eight others, as well as massive loss of aircraft and equipment. I'm not asking you to feel sorry for me, but Mark Gurganus and Greg Sturdevant were close personal friends of mine.

I served with them for decades. They're extraordinary Marine officers who have served their country with distinction and honor for many years. But commandership is a sacred responsibility and the standard for general officers is necessarily high. In their duty to protect our forces these two generals did not meet that standard. They were outwitted by a bunch of peasant guerrillas.

If you want to read the official US Army report into the attack, you can find it here. Posted by Nick Fielding at 0 comments. The banality of modern warfare.

Circling the Lion's Den: July

For the majority of people outside Afghanistan, the war has largely been forgotten. Operations are winding down, they say, there is talk of peace and, anyway, Syria is a much more pressing issue. In was in that context that I was struck by this news report I read yesterday. In itself, it appears to be nothing unusual - ANSF and Coalition forces killed a number of Taliban fighters overnight in what are termed "clean-up" operations.

But look further down the report: "More than militants have been killed and arrested since the beginning of this month". As a result 22 armed Taliban were killed, 12 wounded and eight others were arrested by the ANSF," the ministry said in a statement providing daily operational updates. They also found and seized weapons and defused roadside bomb, it noted. More than militants had been killed and arrested since beginning this month, according the figure released by the ministry.

In eastern Wardak province, seven Taliban, including a local leader Mawlawi Enhan, were killed in a joint overnight operation in Nirkh district, a provincial government spokesman told Xinhua. The Taliban insurgent group has not made comments yet. Every day, week-in, week-out, for months, if not for years, the Afghan defence ministry and the ISAF command have been reporting this level of casualties amongst the Taliban. Assuming that the figures are accurate, it is worth making a few points: first, generally these deaths are not occurring during firefights.

They are usually as a result of night raids - where special forces arrive by helicopter in planned operations that are intelligence-led. The aim is to kill known individuals, preferably commanders and facilitators. Second, seldom do these reports, which are issued on a daily basis, mention the collateral damage - the civilians who get in the way or the faulty intelligence that results in the wrong people being killed or captured.

We just have the bland figures. Another month, another or so people killed in Afghanistan.

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Just in case you had forgotten the banality of modern, murderous warfare. Monday, 30 September Dutch publish lists of those killed during the late s. Here is the link to the Dutch public prosecutor's lists of almost 5, Afghans murdered during the period when the country was ruled by the Communist Party in the late s. The Death Lists consist of rows of names, mostly in alphabetic order. Examples of such accusations are: echwani, ashrar and Maoist anti-revolutionary.

On each list, a date between and is written. On some lists, there is a Government-stamp.

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